My discussion of Alexie's work challenges the dogmatic and conservative insistence that, while a written, authored work can be considered a folklore text, it is not and cannot be called folklore. This essay is directed toward both scholars entrenched in the study of literary texts and to academic folklorists who insist on conventional and conservative parameters for what constitutes folklore. My aim is to articulate an approach to this particular authored text which would prevent the incorrect and casual identification of folklore in literature, as well as any preemptive dismissal of its presence in this novel. By reading Sherman Alexie's as a literary construction as well as a work born of a particular culture and artistic tradition, I insist on a more complicated understanding of its content, shape, and meanings in a critique of folklore theories which limit and confine our concepts of the power and dimensions of shaped words. I also challenge the popular but simplistic notion that Native American writing is somehow more "oral" than other texts, and I combat in part the increasingly useless distinction between the written and oral manifestation of verbal art by relying on some ideas of Dell Hymes as well as John Miles Foley. Foley, who considers text a medium for representing parts of an oral traditional performance, argues in (1995) that a text (or the material written representation of folklore) cannot be declared something "different in species" from the oral tradition to which it is related, asking instead "how a given text continues the tradition of reception?" We can achieve an understanding of Alexie's text's reception and its place in a tradition, of course, by understanding the written representation on its own terms, by relying on textual indications of performance, and by learning or understanding the "institutionalized meanings" within the register of the tradition. That is, we can examine Alexie's text for its literary practices which represent those signals of performance, and then we can begin to seek a truer understanding of traditional meanings and ideas. Alexie, of course, relies on our readerly knowledge that we inscribe into his text, and then he uses literary devices that are both conventional and which subvert and d disrupt western literary principles. I assert, however, that besides easily dissecting Alexie's story collection and recognizing textual indications of meaning and performance, and beyond identifying keys to performance which indicate how this text might register with people in Alexie's folk group, I also contend that there is a kind of living dimension to the authored, printed word that cannot be summarily discounted unless we are unwilling to examine and enflesh our understanding of word power and a living tradition, and I argue for a more expansive notion of how folklore processes can be exchanged and represented.
In addition to direct evolutionary responses of organisms involved in invasions there are also very important indirect effects through changes in the genetic structure of invasive species in relation to the new organisms that they encounter. These major effects are related to hybridization and introgression. Rhymer and Simberloff () have recently summarized our knowledge in this area. There are many examples extending over many different taxonomic groups, a few of which are noted below. These authors conclude that in the case of invasive species hybridization with native species can cause a loss in fitness in the latter and even a threat of extinction. McMillan and Wilcove () have documented that of 3 of 24 species listed as Endangered in the United States and that subsequently went extinct, 3 were the result of hybridization with alien species.
Free brown wasps Essays and Papers - …
At its inner edge the swamp of the Fifth Circle deepens into the River Styx proper, where the wrathful still fight, under the water, and the sullen too lie there. Large black towers are spaced along the edge of the swamp. These are ferry terminals. Red light signals - like flames or lasers - flash from their upper windows to other towers and the City of Dis, over the river. This signal can summon a ferryman, for example Phlegyas, to carry people across to Dis, though not without argument. Phlegyas is a large bearded man with a low gold crown who stands in the stern of his boat propelling it (much faster than it looks like it should go) with an oar over the stern. He takes passengers to the other ferry terminal, on the Dis side.